Why is the Rabbit's Foot Considered Lucky?
Published on January 27, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1410

The rabbit’s foot is often used as an amulet to bring about luck.   The lucky rabbit’s foot originated from ancient beliefs held by the Celts around 600 BC.  The Celts considered the rabbit a friend to the god of fertility, due the rapid rate in which rabbits reproduce.  Rabbits are also associated with spring and the return of flowers and foliage.  Since rabbits live underground, the foot of the rabbit was used to protect a person from evil spirits.

Women who wished to become pregnant or those who wished to enhance their sexual lives, also carried the rabbit’s foot.  In the 16th century, Reginald Scot, an Englishman who wrote The Discoverie of Witchcraft in 1584, claimed a rabbit’s foot in your pocket would ease arthritis pain.  The belief in the lucky rabbit’s foot is seen in Europe, China, Africa, and North and South America, but the view of the rabbit’s foot varies by culture.  To the Chinese, the rabbit’s foot symbolizes prosperity.

Not all of the rabbit’s feet are considered lucky.  When rabbits run, their hind legs land of the ground first, thus it was their right hind leg that was considered magical, since the left was often associated with the devil.  One superstition claims that the foot would only be lucky if the rabbit was shot in the cemetery at night with a silver bullet.

In hoodoo, which is a mix of African/American folk magic, the rabbit’s foot was used in various ceremonies.  Superstition claims that carrying the foot will bring you good luck, and rubbing it on the bottom of a baby’s foot will assure the child good luck for life.

Not all beliefs regarding the rabbit’s foot are said to grant luck, for there were some that believed they evoked bad luck if the owner of the rabbit’s foot kept the talisman for themselves.  The good luck was only believed to come if the owner gave the rabbit’s foot to another.  This would bless the giver and receiver of the rabbit’s foot luck, but if the receiver lost the lucky talisman, both giver and receiver would be met with bad luck.

Animal rights activists have concerns regarding the killing of rabbits for such a purpose, and thus encouragement toward the rabbit’s foot as a lucky charm is passing into history.  Although you can still buy them in some countries, synthetic alternatives are readily available.

A special thanks to Scientific American and Committee for Skeptical Inquiry

2014 is the Year of the Wood Horse
Published on January 24, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1001

The year of the Horse begins on January 30th with the new moon and ends on February 18th.

This is the year of the wood horse or the green horse, since wood is an element of spring, when plants begin their regrowth.  In Chinese astrology, the year of the horse is considered a year of luck, competitiveness, and good things, it is also a time of rapid change and power struggles.  The horse is a spirited animal that symbolizes travel and speedy success.  The horse is known for freedom, passion, leadership, and nobility.  Horse is also the strongest fire animal of the Chinese zodiac and so it is connected with heat, fire, and the color red.  Since red is a symbol of love, the horse is treated as a Romantic Star in Chinese horoscope.  People born in the year of the horse are often intelligent and have a gift for speech.

So what does all this mean for the coming year?  2014 will be a lucky year, and bad luck should be minimal.  If it’s a favorable year for you, you could catch a lot of lucky breaks, and if it’s an unfavorable year for you, the luck in the year could soften the blows.  The wood horse is a year of victories, unexpected adventure, and romance.  Wood energy encourages slow growth.  It is the year for taking chances.

A word of forewarning, horse energy is fast and can refer to fools rushing in where the wise fear to go.  So although this may be a lucky year, before you rush to complete your goals, make sure you’re prepared and use common sense to meet with success.  Keep in mind that you don’t want to go galloping off in the wrong direction.  Under the horse there is no middle ground, so as some global economies will become stronger, others will collapse.  This year may bring about opportunities for spiritual growth and attitude changes.  It is the cooperative energy of the horse that reminds us of the courage and stamina necessary to follow our dreams.  Thoughtful transformations and a shared enthusiasm for improvements is a positive indication that 2014 will be a good year.

Historic Sights Part Eleven
Published on January 22, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1307

Castle Stalker is a four-story keep that sits on a tidal island on Loch Linnhe.  It is located off the coast of Argyll, Scotland.  The castle is accessible from the shore at low tide.  The original castle was built in the early 14th century by Clan MacDougall who were the Lords of Lorn. (Lorn is an ancient district in the west of Scotland.)  Around 1388 the Stewarts took over the Lordship of Lorn and were said to have built the castle that currently rests upon the site in the 1440’s.  Due to a drunken wager made by King James IV of Scotland, the castle passed to Clan Campbell in 1620.  The Campbell’s abandoned the castle in 1840, when the keep lost its roof.  In 1965 Lt. Colonel D.R Stewart Allward purchased the castle and began restoration.  Castle stalker is owned privately and is open to the public at select times during the summer.

Ballindalloch Castle is located in Moray, Scotland.  The first tower of the Z plan design was built in 1546, which was a typical design for the late 16th century noble houses in the Grampian region.  The tower house was plundered and burned by the first Marquis of Montrose, but was restored in 1645.  Ballindalloch is known as the Pearl of the North.  The property has been in the Russell Macpherson-Grant family since 1457.  The Macpherson-Grants, founded the famous Aberdeen Angus cattle on this land.  In 1770, two wings were added to the castle by James Grant, who decided to enlarge his family home and allow his chef the use of one of the new wings.  Throughout the property’s history, the castle underwent alterations, which were extensive during the Victorian era, with further modernizations being done in 1965.  The rivers Spey and Avon run through the property.  The home is still family owned and is open to the public.  Guests can partake in light snacks and beverages in the tearoom.

Cardiff Castle is a medieval castle and Victorian gothic revival mansion.  The castle is located in Cardiff, Wales.  The structure was originally a 3rd century Roman fort that was built upon by Norman invaders in the 11th century.  The castle was the heart of the medieval town of Cardiff.  In the 12th century, the castle was rebuilt with stone and defensive walls were erected around the property.  Cardiff Castle underwent many attacks in the 12th century due to conflicts between the Anglo-Normans and the Welsh.  Owen Glendower, the Prince of Wales, attacked the castle in 1404 during the Welsh Revolt against King Henri IV of England.  The English Parliament also took the castle by force during the English Civil War, but Royalist supporters regained it in 1645.  The structure continued to undergo renovations through the years when it passed into the hands of the Marquesses of Bute.  The castle grew into a Georgian mansion and many of the other medieval buildings on the property, along with the walls, were demolished.  The grounds were landscaped and reconstructed to include parks.  The finding of Roman remains led to the walls and a gatehouse being reconstructed into the Roman design.  The interior is considered to be an excellent example of gothic revival.  In the 20th century, many commercial companies took interest in the lands surrounding Cardiff and the property was sold off in pieces, with some of the lands becoming nationalized, until only the castle was left.  The castle is currently owned by the city of Cardiff and it is open to the public.

Alcázar of Segovia is a stone fortification located in the city of Segovia, Spain.  The castle is built upon a rock cliff above the rivers of Eresma and Clamores.  Segovia Castle is shaped like the bow of a ship, making it distinct from other castles.  The fortification first began as an Arab Fort, which was built atop the remains of a Roman fort.  The castle is believed to have been built in the 12th century, after the city of Segovia returned to Christian hands. The palace was enlarged and added to during the next four centuries.  During the middle ages the castle served as a royal palace.  It has also served as a state prison, a royal Artillery College, and a military academy.  In 1862 a fire destroyed much of the structure and it was rebuilt two decades later in a more romantic style.  Segovia Castle is one of the castles that inspired Disney’s Cinderella Castle.

Goodreads Giveaway for paperback copy of my new release, The Vengeful Earl
Published on January 12, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 924

Goodreads Book Giveaway
The Vengeful Earl by L.A. Hilden


Giveaway ends February 14, 2014.



at Goodreads.


The Lucky Horseshoe
Published on January 9, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1854

Since early history, working animals were exposed to hoof damage from excessive wear.  In ancient Asia, horses hooves were often wrapped in rawhide or other materials for protection.  The early Roman’s also attempted to wrap their horses’ hooves with a solid, leather and metal contraption, called the hipposandal.  The nailed type of horseshoe came later.  The earliest written record of an iron horseshoe was in 910 A.D.  Around 1000 A.D., cast, bronze horseshoes with nail holes became common.  By the early 11th century, iron horseshoes were manufactured, and due to the value of iron at the time, horseshoes could be accepted to pay taxes.  The continual need for horseshoes, placed blacksmiths in high demand, and their craft led to the development of metallurgy.

Interesting history, but why is the horseshoe considered lucky?  Why do we see them hung over barn doors and along fences?  There are a couple of reasons.  First, lucky horseshoes came into being during festive occasions, where a silver shoe was hammered into a horse’s hoof before the parade, and the retriever won a prize.

Another reason the horseshoe is lucky is because it is said to ward off witches and devils.  The iron used to make the shoe was an element believed to ward off fairy folk and evil entities.  Why iron?  Iron smells like human blood and blood is our life force.  Iron is also found deep in the earth and considered the life force of the earth.  Thus iron, like silver, could ward off witches, fairies, and ghosts.  Although if witches existed, then they likely used iron cauldrons, so their fear of that element seems convoluted.  I’d like to note that prison bars, cemetery gates, and many crucifixes are also made out of iron, which is interesting.  So lower entities of energy dissipate from the grounding element of iron.

Legend says that the blacksmith, Saint Dunstan, nailed a horseshoe to the devil’s foot, with a guarantee that the devil would leave his family in peace if he nailed a horseshoe on the door.

Horseshoes are still seen in the 21st century as well, although I’m unsure if people are aware of the stories behind the symbol they are hanging.  Nailing a horseshoe on the barn was said to prevent a witch from taking or riding your horses.  Western culture claims the user of the lucky talisman should leave the ends upward, so that the luck doesn’t drain out.  Other cultures suggest leaving the ends downward to shower the person with luck.  Most cultures believed that since the horseshoe protects the horse, then it must protect people too.  The horseshoe being recognized as good luck dates back to the 4th century in Greece.  They felt that the iron horseshoe drove away evil and the shape of the horseshoe represented the crescent moon, which was known as a symbol of fertility and good luck.  The horseshoe was a potent charm on land or sea.  Horseshoes were nailed to the masts of ships to protect the crew during storms.  The rule of luck regarding a horseshoe is if you find one and there are nails still in it, count them, for the more nails means a luckier you.  In Northumberland, the rule was that the holes missing nails, indicated the number of years remaining until the person who found the item weds.

A Poem by James T. Fields

The stranger asked to see the shoe;

The farmer brought it into view;

But when the old man raised his head;

He laughed outright and quickly said;

“No wonder skies upon you frown,

You’ve nailed the horse-shoe upside down;

Just turn it round, and soon you’ll see

How you and Fortune will agree.”


A special thanks to Diabolicalconfusions.wordpress.com and The History & Use of Amulets, Charms and Talisman by Gary R. Varner

Blog Hop
Published on January 3, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1229

So this is my second Blog Hop, which means a different set of questions.  The first questions is:

If I could achieve anything in my writing in 2014, what would it be?

Realistically, I’d love to finish three more books and publish another in each of my current series.  But, in the dream world that I prefer to live in, I’d like to see my books fall under the nose of a fabulous screenwriter, who falls in love with my characters and decides to make all my stories into movies.

What are the top three demons you must slay to reach your goals?

To reach my goals I need to tackle marketing.  If anyone knows anyone who’s a close friend to Oprah, let me know.  I’ve never been big on tooting my own horn.  Finding the right balance in marketing that works for me will be difficult.  Since I have a backlist with six novels in circulation, effective marketing is something that I plan to work on this year.  I also plan on examining spirituality in combination with religion, while trying to remain impartial.  This isn’t always easy, since I tend to often have an opinion, although I don’t always share it.  And lastly, I shall try to fight the overwhelming sensation I sometimes get when I have a story filling my head and I’m not yet finished with the research I wish to do.  This problem tends to send me back to the computer where I end up adding more to the chapters previously written, which is time consuming.

Name three things that inspire you to write?

I’d have to say love.  Love of learning, love of the craft, and love of people.  I tend to crave learning and when I’m doing my research and come upon information that I never knew, I’m instantly fascinated.  I adore writing and feel it is my calling in this life.  I enjoy creating memorable characters that have feelings and flaws, and layers to their personalities.  As is true with any individual, my characters are shaped from their pasts and experiences.  The redemption and forgiveness that comes from love is a timeless story, for love alters and shapes our lives.  And I can’t help delving into the whole boy meets girl story because I find the interaction and sometimes awkwardness between the sexes inspiring as well as comical.

What advice do you have to a new writer who is considering writing fiction?

My advice would be to write what you love to read.  What book is in your head wishing to be written?  That’s the one you write.  It may not be your best, but writing is an art and like all things, the more you practice, the better you become.  Once you have something you are proud of, enter it into a few contests to see what kind of feedback you receive.  Always remember that reading is subjective and what one person loves, another may hate.  Keep in mind that you cannot please all readers.  I then advise you to get a good copy editor, since most readers cannot tolerate an overabundance of errors.  Stay positive and write to make yourself happy, you will not disappoint.

Symbolism of the Feather
Published on December 13, 2013 by lahilden | Views: 1377

Feathers symbolize ascension to the spiritual plane.  In most cultures, feathers represented higher thought and spiritual progression.  Birds were considered divine creatures because they are of the sky and therefore closer to God.

Feathers were worn by the Native Americans to symbolize their communication with the Great Spirit and to convey their celestial wisdom.  Feathers also represented the thunder gods and the power of the air and wind.  For the Native American tribes, the gifting of feathers is a high honor and they are seen as a sign of trust, strength, wisdom, honor, and freedom.

The ancient Celts and Egyptians believed the feather represented the sky gods.  Ma’at, the Egyptian goddess of Justice, would weigh the hearts of the newly dead on the Scales of Justice against the weight of her ostrich feather to determine the soul’s worth.  Souls not worthy were eaten by Ammit, an Egyptian demon.

In Christianity, feathers represent the virtues of charity, hope, and faith.

Feathers are used in sacred ceremonies for many purposes, but different types and colors of feathers have differing meanings.  When I was little, my neighbors had a muster of peacocks and I’d always hear their calls.  To me their calls sounded like laughter, but my brother believed they were calling his name, which I found hysterical.  My mother had a big vase of these iridescence and colorful feathers in our house.  The beautiful peacock feather is a symbol of integrity and the beauty we can achieve if we show our true colors.  I’ve always admired the colors on the peacock feather.  The “eye” that adorns some of these feathers is considered to promote luck, protection, and awareness.  Many ancient cultures saw the peacock as an enchanted beast since it discarded such beautiful feathers during its annual molt.  Some see the peacock as a manifestation of the Phoenix and believe the feathers hold power.  The peacock was coveted by royalty in ancient Egypt, the penalty for a lessor individual having a peacock feather in their possession was death.

For Christians, the peacock represents the death and resurrection of Jesus.  It’s a symbol of renewal and immortality within their spiritual teachings.  The peacock often appears with the other animals in the stables of Christ’s nativity.

When you find feathers on your path, this may be a sign of encouragement for you to continue a higher spiritual direction.  Feathers are also believed to be sent from the angels as a sign to show that they are near and that you are not alone.  Oft times, they are shown to you as a message to lighten your outlook on things currently happening in your life.  Finding bird feathers is a reflection of change and reaching new levels of consciousness.  Remember that feathers appear when angels are near.

An old Scottish saying: “Angels can fly because they take themselves lightly.”

A special thank you to www.whats-your-sign.com and Ted Andrews, Animal Speak.

Blog Hop Questions
Published on December 7, 2013 by lahilden | Views: 890

Hello, I’m participating in a blog hop.  If this is how you reached my page today, then welcome to L.A. Hilden’s blog site.  Typically, I blog about the Regency period, castles, writing tips, and symbolism.  I was provided a set of questions and have given my responses in this blog.

What are you writing?

Currently, I am writing a new time travel series that involves three sister witches and their fight between light and dark.  I’ve been doing a great deal of research for this series.  Delving into the spiritual dimensions has been fascinating reading for me.  I’m only three chapters into the story, but I love the direction this story is taking.

My Regency historical A Vengeful Earl was released a couple of weeks ago.  A.V.E. is book two in the Bewildering Love series.  Aiden Northwood, the Earl of Sinclair, arrives I England to right the wrongs of his past, only to find his plans thwarted when he falls in love with Lydia Witley, a lady he was determined to destroy in the eyes of society.  I’m doing a final read on The Lady Charmer, which is book three in this series.  I plan to release T.L.C. next year.

I’m also putting the finishing touches to my next time travel release, which is book three in my Destiny series called A Tudor Displaced, which I plan to release next year. This is the story about Phoebe Bennett, a Tudor lady who finds herself in Regency England.  Phoebe is a feisty heroine who is destined to drive the Earl of Insley crazy.

How does your new work differ from past projects?

This time travel series differs from anything I’ve ever written because the love story is not the central focus of the story.  As of right now, I don't plan to marry any of the sisters to anyone, but there is tons of romance.  My new series delves further into the spiritual aspects of life as well as witchcraft.  The three sisters in my new story are Reiki practitioners.  They are decedents from the supreme witch, Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt.  The Griffin sisters were placed upon earth to help balance the scales of light and dark, regardless to realm or century.  The goddess Isis assigns them the tasks to complete.  The sisters are not in accord in regards to their destiny, and hiding their secrets from the world and their boyfriends is complicated.

Why do you write?

I love writing and using my imagination to create stories.  I tend to favor Regency England for my settings since there is something about that time that resonates with me.  Writing is my passion and I couldn’t imagine not doing so.  Stories enter my head and plot lines develop, which ends with me in front of the keyboard.

What is your writing process?

My writing process starts with an idea of a story and my imagination takes it from there.  I do not outline or plan an extensive plot.  I allow the story to tell me where it wants to go.  I have notes of funny quips, character bios, and minor plot ideas that I want to include in the story, as well as pages of research littered around me, but I don’t keep a set schedule and I tend to write when inspiration strikes.  When I do sit down in front of the keyboard, I usually write a chapter, which is about thirteen pages.  At that rate I could write a rough draft in thirty days, but that never happens. J

Symbolism and the Butterfly
Published on November 25, 2013 by lahilden | Views: 1017

I often use symbols in my stories, although readers may not always be aware of them.  Since I minored in Art History, I have studied works of art from Egypt to modern times.  The focus in all my studies was symbolism.  Symbols are used in various art forms to convey different connotations from their literal meaning.

I really don’t care for bugs, but if I had to choose a favorite, I’d have to go with the colorful and beautiful Butterfly.  The lifecycle of the butterfly consists of four stages, the egg, larva, pupa, and adult.  They represent transformation and change.  The butterfly emphasizes the ability to move from one state to the next, whether this is a life perspective, or a change in being from physical form to spirit.  The butterfly endures profound changes to become an adult, and its message is to accept the changes in our lives as casually as the butterfly.  Like the butterfly changes, so to do our soul’s by the end of our journey.

The butterfly is a powerful symbol in myth and religion.  They are often associated with the soul in many parts of the world.  To the early Christians, the butterfly symbolized the soul.  In China, the butterfly is seen as a symbol of conjugal bliss and immortality.  Native Americans view the butterfly as a symbol of joy and change.  They also believed the color of the butterfly contains it’s own message.  To the Japanese, the white butterfly symbolizes departed loved ones.  Butterflies serve as a reminder to not take things too seriously in life.  They remind us that change is not only inevitable, but that it is also good, even if it doesn’t feel that way.  So in essence, this pretty insect is telling you to lighten up and allow the heaviness and tension to fly away with the breeze, while you enjoy the ride.

Butterflies serve a higher purpose for many, and I have seen first hand how departed loved ones make use of them.  The stories I have could fill pages and I can’t help finding the heaven sent butterflies amazing.  The joy they bring to a hurting parent’s heart is priceless.  All hail the butterfly.

A Brief History of Judicial Beheadings
Published on November 16, 2013 by lahilden | Views: 3242

Decapitation is the separation of the head from the body.  Beheading refers to the act in which the decapitation is carried out for execution.  Beheading as a form of punishment has been around for centuries. This form of punishment was performed by axe, sword, knife, or a wire.  The Romans considered beheading a more humane and honorable way to die when compared to crucifixion, thus they only beheaded their own citizens and crucified the others.

The axe and sword were the favored tools used for beheading, but they tended to become dull and could only strike as hard and accurately as the headsman wielding it.  This meant that it often took a number of blows to the neck to sever the head from the body.  If a person was beheaded by sword, there was usually no block to lay the head upon and the victim kneeled as the sword struck.  A typical execution sword was 36-48 inches long and 2-2.5 inches wide, with a handle long enough for both of the executioner’s hands.  The axe, which was used more often, needed a wooden block where the person would place their head, these blocks were often shaped to fit the neck.

In England, beheading was used as a form of punishment for serious crimes since Anglo-Saxon times.  Beheading was considered an honorable way to die for an aristocrat, when compared to hanging, being burned at the stake, or drawn and quartered.  Nevertheless, beheadings weren’t a regular occurrence, and an inexperienced headsman and a blunt axe could make dying torturous.  The courageous Countess of Salisbury was struck eleven times, once in the shoulder, during a private Tower Green execution of 150 spectators, before she passed.  The 2nd Earl of Essex and Mary, Queen of Scots, required three blows to see the deed completed.

This brings us to the invention of the guillotine in the late 18th century, for this device was seen as a more humane alternative.  Although other similar beheading devices did exist at the time, none of them were adopted on such a large scale as the guillotine with its diagonal blade.  The guillotine carried out executions far more efficiently and post-Revolutionary France adopted the contraption in 1792.  This unfortunately led to the Reign of Terror in France, where more than 30,000 people met the guillotine in a single year.  France used the guillotine for state-sanctioned executions until 1977.

Guillotine Facts:

Total weight of guillotine is about 1278 lbs.

The guillotine’s metal blade weighs about 88.2 lbs.

The height of the guillotine posts average about 14 ft.

The falling blade has a rate of speed of about 21 feet per second.

The beheading takes place in 2/100 of a second.

The time the blade falls and then stops takes a 70th of a second.

There were certain traditions followed in an English beheading.  A raised platform was built and covered with straw.  A minister would offer comfort and prayer for the victim.  The victim was then expected to forgive the executioner and speak to the crowd if they wished.  The victim was encouraged to gift the executioner with a gold coin to ensure the job was done with care.  The headsman usually wore a black suit and a half mask covering his face.  The victim is usually blindfolded so they do not see the weapon coming and possibly move at a crucial moment.  The results are horrific, and as you can imagine, blood spurts from the severed arteries.  After, the severed head was held up by the hair to the crowd in an effort to teach a lesson.  Death by beheading is immediate, but stored oxygen in the brain takes about eight seconds to disperse before death occurs, which is due to the separation of the brain and spinal cord, this is why some people report seeing the eyes and mouth move on a severed head.  The heads of traitors were then displayed on top of spikes on London Bridge.  The Tower of London saw many executions but severity of punishment depended upon the crime committed.  Most executions were held in public on Tower Hill, but some executions were conducted behind the walls of the Tower at Tower Green.  These private executions were considered politically charged or the victims were female, thus certain beheadings were believed to be too sensitive for the often-riotous public.  Double hangings were rare, but they did occur during the Jacobite Rebellion.  Beheading was outlawed in England in 1747.

Over time, many began to see beheading as cruel and barbaric, in turn leading most of the world to banish it as a form of punishment.  Nevertheless, beheading is still legal in Saudi Arabia and various Middle Eastern Countries.  Saudi Arabia conducts public beheading’s for many crimes, including murder, rape, drug trafficking, sodomy, armed robbery, and others.

Some famous beheadings in the American Colonies and Great Britain:  This list could begin in Roman times and unfortunately it would end in current times.

American Colonies (Utah Territory allowed beheading as a means of execution as an option, but no one chose that option and beheadings were no longer permitted when Utah became a state.)

1586- Roanoke Indian Chief Wingina was beheaded by English settlers.
1676- New England Indian Chief Metacomet “King Philip” was killed in battle, posthumously beheaded and quartered, for resisting white settlement.  His head was displayed on a pole for 25 years in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1718- Famous pirate Blackbeard was beheaded posthumously after his capture at Ocracoke Island off North Carolina.

Great Britain (Executions in England were implemented according to birth and execution of the lower classes was usually achieved by hanging from the gallows.)

1536- Anne Boleyn, Queen of England was beheaded by sword for treason.
1541- Catherine Howard, Queen of England was beheaded for treason.
1567- Mary, Queen of Scots was beheaded for treason.
1716- Viscount Kenmure was beheaded at Tower Hill as a Jacobite Rebel.
1746- 6th Lord Balmerinoch was beheaded at Tower Hill as a Jacobite Rebel.
1817- Jeremiah Brandreth was beheaded in Derby for treason.  He was the last person in Britain to be beheaded, but since beheading was outlawed at this time, he was hanged and then posthumously beheaded.

For a full list of executions at the tower of London; http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/tower.html


A special thank you to capitalpunishmentuk.org and The History of the Guillotine by Dr. Jospeh Ignace Guillotin.