Hottest Men In World Cup
Published on June 24, 2014 by L.A. Hilden | Views: 1665


In celebration of the World Cup, here are some of the hottest men in the game.

Neymar Da Silva Santos Jr. (Brazil)  Age 22

Cristiano Ronaldo  (Portugal)  Age 29 



Oliver Giroud  (France) Age 27


Asmir Begovic  (Bosnia and Herzegovina  Age 27


Haris Serferovic  (Switzerland)  Age 22


Nicola Lodeiro  (Uruguay) Age 25


James Trusi  (Australia)  Age 25

Historic Sights Part Twelve
Published on May 27, 2014 by L.A. Hilden | Views: 2123

Airth Castle is located in the village of Airth, in the Falkirk area of Scotland.  The Gothic castle dates back to the 14th century.  The castle is often linked with the family of Robert the Bruce, since they owned the castle during the 15th century.  The castle was burned during the Battle of Sauchierburn in 1488, but later rebuilt.  An extension was built on the east side of the tower in the mid-16th century, and in 1581, a northeast wing was added, in turn creating an L-shaped design.  In 1717, the castle passed into the hands of the Graham family, an ownership that continued over the next two centuries.  In the 19th century, the Graham family commissioned architect, David Hamilton to fill in the L-shape.  This changed the face of the castle to what it is today.  The Graham family sold the castle in 1920, and it was converted into a hotel in 1971.  Airth Castle is currently an award winning hotel and spa.



Balmoral Castle is located in Royal Deeside, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.  The name Balmoral is Gaelic for majestic dwelling.  The castle is steeped in history with the first house being built on the site by Sir William Drummond in 1390.  The Gordon family built a tower house on the property, when the first Earl of Huntly’s son rented the estate.  The castle passed to Jacobean sympathizers in 1662.  In 1798, James Duff, the second Earl of Fife, purchased and then leased the castle.  And in 1830, the third Earl of Aberdeen acquired the castle and began major alterations implementing the Scots Baronial style.  Balmoral has been a Royal residence since 1852, when Queen Victoria and her consort, Prince Albert purchased the castle.  The Queen deemed the existing 15th century house too small, and it was demolished once the new estate was completed in 1856.  It remains the private property of the monarch, and is not considered a part of the Crown Estate.  There are guided tours, but hours vary, with certain months unavailable for visitors.

Edinburgh Castle is located in Edinburgh, Scotland.  The fortress sits upon volcanic Castle Rock, which erupted over 340 million years ago.  The first human habitation of the site dates back to the 9th century BC.  A royal residence has remained at the site since the 12th century AD.  The fortress was involved in many wars and was besieged at many points throughout history.  Tensions between the English and Scottish monarchies nearly always focused on Edinburgh Castle, for he who held the castle held rule over Edinburgh and in essence all of Scotland.  Some of the buildings were destroyed by artillery in the 16th century.  The chapel however was left unharmed and dates back to the 12th century.  Around 1510, the Great Hall was built by James IV.  During the 17th century the castle was used as a military base.  Edinburgh Castle’s importance as an historical landmark was recognized in the 19th century and restorations began to take place.  The castle sheltered many Scottish monarchs, including Mary Queen of Scots.  In 1996, the Stone of Destiny, on which kings were enthroned for centuries, was returned to Scotland.  This stone is now displayed in the Crown Room at the castle.  Edinburgh Castle is Scotland’s l
eading tourist attraction.

Dalhousie Castle is located in Midlothian, Scotland.  The first castle was constructed in the mid 15th century, although the current structure dates to the 17th century.  The castle is made from pink sandstone and sits on the River Esk.  The drum tower is the oldest part of the L Plan design.  There was a dry moat around the castle, complete with a drawbridge, but it was filled during the late 20th century. Dalhousie Castle was the seat of the Earls of Dalhousie, the chieftains of Clan Ramsey.  In the early 20th century, Clan Ramsey moved to Brechin Castle, but they kept ownership of Dalhousie Castle until 1977.  After eight hundred years of being in the Dalhousie family, the castle was leased for a boarding school, and then converted to a hotel, before it was eventually sold in 2003.  This is the longest any one family owned a castle in Scotland.  The Ramsey Coat of Arms is carved in stone above the castle’s entrance.  Dalhousie Castle is currently a hotel and spa.


Sacred Geometry
Published on May 26, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 2049


I’ve been working on my spiritual witches series.  This series delves into Reiki, the afterlife, energy, witchcraft, reincarnation, ancient Egypt, astral travel, time travel, and of course, love.  One of the subjects I explored was Sacred Geometry.  Sacred Geometry involves universal patterns used in the design of everything in our reality.  This includes the Golden Ratio (Phi), Divine Proportion, and Consciousness.

The belief that God created the universe according to a geometric plan has been believed since ancient times.  These beliefs were culminated through the study of nature and the mathematical principals at work.  These harmonic proportions are found in music, light, and cosmology.  Sacred Geometry is used when planning the building of churches, temples, mosques, altars, and other religious structures.  It is also used in holy places and in religious art.  Sacred Geometry has symbolic and sacred meanings, which are ascribed to geometric shapes of various proportions.

These geometrical patterns can be found throughout nature and history.

The honeybee constructs hexagonal cells to store honey.

The ancient Egyptians geometrically aligned the Great Pyramids with Orion’s belt.

It is said that by connecting with these pattern recognitions of Sacred Geometry that the believer contemplates the “Great Mysteries and Great Design” and that the insight gained may assist in achieving an understanding of the laws of the universe.

In music, modern theorists claim reality is created by harmonics following the pattern of Sacred Geometry.  Pythagoreans believed these harmonic ratios gave music the power to heal.  Like Reiki energy, music can align the chakras and heal the body by lifting energy vibration levels.

The Flower of Life can be found in all major religions of the world and the Seed of Life is found in every Flower.  The Flower of Life is the modern name given to the geometrical figure of multiple and evenly spaced, overlapping circles.  These circles are arranged to form a flower like pattern with a six-fold symmetry like a hexagon.

To some, the Flower of Life contains the fundamental forms of space and time, seen as a visual expression to connect all souls, and believed to be a type of Akashic Record for all living things.  The oldest representation of the Flower of Life was found in stone at the Temple of Osiris in Abydos, Egypt.

Consciousness and reality are set in linear time.  We are here to experience and record human emotion.  Sacred Geometry revolves around the Wheel of Time or Karma, where we experience earthly life and evolve.  We are eternal souls of light having a human experience, where our consciousness spirals down through the patterns of the Golden Ratio, until we reverse the spiral and return to the Creator.

For more information regarding Sacred Geometry and its portrayal in the Bible, and to further understand the creation of man according to Sacred Geometry, I suggest watching the following video.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rx31y1KKK3E

A special thank you to www.crystallinks and Sacred Geometry Explained-YouTube


Regency Footwear
Published on May 12, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1597

Since antiquity, people have protected their feet with the use of footwear.  Not only are shoes used to protect, they also make a statement, whether of fashion or status.

During Regency England, those who could afford it had their shoes made by a cobbler. Of course styles changed from round toe to pointy toe with the times.  These changes are most evident in women’s slippers, where different fabrics, colored leathers, and fancy embellishments were added for flare.

The most amazing aspect of ladies shoes at this time was how completely unsuitable most styles were for outdoors, which is why boots were often worn when outside or spending time in the country.  In inclement weather, ladies often wore pattens.  Pattens were a type of overshoe with a wooden soled sandal on the bottom and fastened to the shoe by an iron ring.  Women slipped their shoes into the pattens, which then raised their height, so their skirts wouldn’t touch the muddy roads.

Early Regency saw a collection of heeled slippers, but after the French Revolution heels began to disappear, symbolizing that everyone was born equal. 

Shoes were made to fit, but they had straight lasts, meaning the shoe would mold to your foot with more wear, and thus create a left and right shoe over time.

The half boot became favorable for outdoors.  These flat-soled boots could be worn for various occasions.  They were more durable than slippers, but they were often made from goat leather, nankeen, and denim-like fabrics, which tended to absorb water.  The lace up half boots were popular, nevertheless, the leather was thin and easily damaged by the elements.

For the most part, men’s shoes during this time consisted of a black leather shoes with a small heel and buckle.  Men often wore riding boots, which were available in calf or knee length.  Hessians were quite popular with the privileged class.

The poor and labor classes were likely to wear wooden clogs.  Some wore thick leather shoes with wooden soles.

A special thank you to englishhistoryauthors.com, Janeaustensworld.com, Jane Austen’s England, by Roy and Lesley Adkins


When Your Wrist Fan Speaks
Published on April 25, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1361


Fans have been sending messages since their inception.  Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt, surrounded herself by slaves who fanned her in an effort to ward off the scorching heat.  The fan was seen as a sacred instrument by the Egyptians and was used in religious ceremonies in many ancient cultures.  It was a symbol of royal power.

Over time, fans became more than ceremonial symbols, tools to cool us, or another pretty accessory, they became an instrument for ladies to speak in secret code.

Allowing your wrist fan to do the talking became second nature to some in Regency England.  During this time a person was often judged and defined by the cut of their jib, or in this situation, the fineness of your fan.  Fans gained popularity in the 16th century, but these were fixed fans, often made from feathers or wood.  The folding fan originated in Japan and over time came to replace the fixed fan by the end of the 17th century.  Fixed fans had become gauche and a lady would be considered quite out of fashion is she carried one.

The folding fans, made from vellum or paper, were considered stylish, but they could be costly.  Fans were often painted with historic commemorative events, Biblical passages, Asian, mythological, or pastoral scenes.  Fans were used both in the day and night time hours, but eventually they were restricted to the evening.  During the Regency period, Vernis Martin fans were highly sought.  The Martin brothers came up with a special technique for the hand painted scenes, and their fans had the mother of pearl handle guards.  Not only did artists partake in this new canvas, but ladies also took to painting their own fans.

There were three types of folding fans.  The old folding type had sticks fastened together and pleated fabric or paper fastened to the sticks.  The cockade fan was pleaded paper, attached with two sticks, and opened into a full circle, with the sticks forming the handle.  From what I learned during my research, cockade fans were not used in ballrooms.  The brisé fan had numerous sticks put together that were painted individually to form a scene.

Fans, like many accessories, followed fashion trends, and when dresses became more colorful and elaborate, so too did the fans.  Over the centuries, a type of fan language evolved, this was likely a way for the young to cope with the stifling rules of social etiquette at the time.  When proper decorum insisted that a lady could not approach a man they’re interested in or reject a man that they’re not, what is a lady to do?  Seems they create their own type of sign language to send their rejections or encouragement with the hopes that parents will be none the wiser.  I can’t imagine what occurs if you move your fan in a way that wasn’t intended, but I think it would be great to add to a story.  Some historians argue that fan language didn’t exist.  But Charles Francis Badini’s book, Fanology or Ladies’ Conversation Fan, was published in 1797 and fan usage was published in many etiquette books and magazines at the time.  Perhaps it was all a ploy to gain more fan sales.  Badini’s book listed the gestures and what these secret flicks of the wrist conveyed.

Here’s a small list of gestures from his book:

Carrying Open fan: come speak with me

Twirling the fan in the right hand: I love another

Twirling the fan in the left hand: We are being watched

Placing the fan near your heart: I love you

A half-closed fan pressed to the lips: You may kiss me

Letting the fan rest on the right cheek: Yes

Letting the fan rest on the left cheek: No

Dropping the fan: We will be friends

 


After reading a small portion of the gestures I tend to wonder how many men actually read the subtle clues ladies were giving them across a dance floor.  Seems you could hold an entire conversation just by moving your fan.  The fan reached its peak during the Victorian era, but they fell out of favor in the mid-20th century.

 

A special thank you to inkwellinspirations.com, angelpig.net, and ageofsteam.com


Easter Eggs
Published on April 18, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 851

Decorating eggshells is an ancient tradition.  In cultures around the world, the egg is a symbol of new life, fertility, and rebirth.  For this reason, many ancient cultures used eggs during their spring festivals.  In Africa, decorated ostrich eggs have been found that are over 60,000 years old.  Ostrich eggs of gold and silver were found in graves of the ancient Sumerians and Egyptians.

In 1610 A.D., the Christian Church began the custom of decorating eggs in memory of Jesus Christ.  These eggs were stained red to represent the blood shed at Christ’s crucifixion.  The hard shell of the egg represented Christ’s sealed tomb, and thus the cracking of the egg symbolized resurrection.  Christians wouldn’t eat eggs during Lent, and Easter was the first chance to eat them after 40 days of going without.  The eggs laid during that time were often preserved through boiling.  This is also why eggs were in abundance during Easter meals.

Many traditions have formed around eggs.  In Europe, they were hung on New Year trees and Maypoles, since the egg symbolizes the regenerative forces of nature.  Egg hunts and rolling eggs down a hill were games played by many cultures.  Every year the White House has an Easter egg roll on the lawn.

Decorating techniques and traditions vary by culture, but eggs were often given as a token of friendship, love, and peace.

 

A special thank you to theholidayspot.com


WITCH HUNTS
Published on March 30, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1854


In the Early Modern Era, roughly 1480 to 1750, there were sanctioned and official witch trails.  Most of us are aware of these stories from history and Hollywood films, but during this time of mass hysteria, an estimated 40,000-60,000 people were executed, and 75 to 85% of them were women.

Many Acts regarding witchcraft were made into law, with an introduction to more serious penalties occurring under King Henri’s VIII’s, Witchcraft Act of 1542.  This Act was the first to define witchcraft as a felony, a crime punishable by death.  Then in 1563, Elizabeth I passed a law against Conjuring, Enchantment, and Witchcraft.  Although witchcraft was still considered a felony, the new law was more lenient, and allowed the death penalty only when harm had been caused to another.  Lessor offences were given a prison term.

Prior to Elizabeth I’s new law, anyone could be accused of witchcraft on any grounds, without any proof.  The accused were brought before an ecclesiastical court, where church ministers acted as judge, jury, and executioner.  The confessions were sought through the use of torture and so there was little chance of anyone escaping an accusation of witchcraft.  Being tortured led to the majority of those accused to admit to guilt before being executed.  Due to the 1563 law, those accused were now brought under the jurisdiction of the courts, allowing due legal process.  Evidence was required to prove the accused did harm to another.

In 1604, these Acts were added to by King James to include the penalty of death again, without the benefit of clergy if a person was found guilty of invoking evil spirits or supernatural entities.  This law was called An Act Against Conjuration, Witchcraft, and Dealing with Evil and Wicked Spirits.  The law had many powerful supporters, including the English witch hunter Matthew Hopkins.  Burning at the stake was eliminated except in cases that also involved petty treason.

In 1735, Great Britain did a complete one eighty in regard to its views and passed the Witchcraft Act.  Parliament made it a crime for any person to accuse someone of having magical powers or to claim a person guilty of practicing witchcraft.  The belief in magic and the supernatural was against the law.  The maximum penalty was a year in prison.  The law was considered heavy handed and thought to be a view held by the medieval church that magic was illusionary and superstitious nonsense.  The new law meant that witchcraft was no longer considered a criminal act, but an act against the country’s newly enlightened state, and thus considered fraud.

Witch trails subsided after 1700, and the last person executed for witchcraft in Great Britain was Scottish born, Janet Horne, who was executed in the British Isles in 1727.  The law wasn’t without opposition, and Lord James Erskine, a significant figure in parliament, did argue against the Act of 1735.  Erskine claimed to believe in witchcraft, which had many members in parliament thinking he had bats in his belfry, although it’s believed he rejected the law because of Scottish political and religious reasons, not because of his belief in magic.

The Witchcraft Act of 1735 was used during the early 19th century in an attempt by the political elite to rid ignorance and superstition among the masses.  This law was eventually repealed with the enactment of the Fraudulent Mediums Act of 1951.  The new law was implemented in England and Wales.  It prohibited a person from claiming to be a psychic, medium, or other spiritualist while attempting to deceive and profit from the deception for reasons other than entertainment.  Of course this law was also repealed in 2008 and replaced with Consumers Protection Regulations.

Witchcraft, voodoo, magic, and sorcery have been punishable since the earliest laws preserved by man.  In ancient Egypt and Babylonia, The Code of Hammurabi (18th century B.C.) said this: "If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge. If the holy river overcomes him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death. He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him."

Roman laws before Christianity had provisions against evil incantations and spells.  Thousands of Romans were killed under the guise of witchcraft; many of these deaths were triggered from epidemic outbreaks.  The numbers of deaths are believed to far surpass the witch-hunts of Early Modern Europe.

Fear can be a very powerful motivator for people, and the Bible tends to play upon such fear.  The Hebrew Bible condemns sorcery in Deuteronomy, Exodus, Samuel, and others.  Since so many people followed scripture, they believed the Exodus scripture that “thou shalt not suffer a witch to live” and well, they didn’t.

The witch trails in Early Modern Europe came in waves, with witch trails in the 15th and early 16th centuries, but declining before peaking again in the 17th century.  To justify the killing of others, the Protestant Christians deemed witchcraft to be associated with Satan.

The largest numbers of witch-hunts in Modern Europe were seen in central and southern Germany, with the peak years in 1561-1670.  Witch-hunts first appeared in large numbers in France and Switzerland during the 14th and 15th centuries.  In Denmark, following the reformation of 1536, the practice of witch hunting was encouraged, and hundreds of people were convicted and burned.  The Salem witch trails in the U.S. took place in the late 17th century.

After reading the reasons behind some of these trials and why a person was accused, I have to say the ignorance and following the herd mentality is amazing.  Some of these women were healers, who worked with plants and herbs to help others, some were deformed, some not liked by their neighbors, others were midwives, but I’m sure very few were true witches.  These people were merely feared or disliked by others who were too closed-minded to see that they were the ones sinning with their acts of murder.

 

A special thank you to www.parliment.UK, and radicalhubpages.com


What I'm Currently Working On
Published on March 17, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 941

My third time travel in the Destiny series, A Tudor Displaced is finished and off to the editor.

A Tudor Displaced is the story of Phoebe Bennett, who follows the time travel passageway to Regency England.  Upon arrival, she’s placed under the care of the Earl of Inlsey, Gabriel Worthing, who has no idea how to handle the unpredictable Tudor lady.  The main characters from the previous two stories also come back to welcome and help Phoebe adjust to her new life.  Of course, Gabriel refuses any help from Desirea, but the Hollywood starlet is not about to let that fly.

I’m branching out in my writing and have recently finished the rough draft of my new Time Travel Paranormal.  I wished to write a novel that would capture a larger audience, while writing something I enjoyed, and that I would allow my teen kids to read.  I’ve always wanted to write a series about good witches, but I wanted them to also have a higher awareness and for their minds to be open to learning.  I also wanted love to echo throughout the story, a love for family, for others, and for life.  I endeavored to create a spiritual understanding of the powerful energy of love.  Since I’m fascinated by life and our soul’s immortality, my keen interest had me reading far more than I likely would have for research.  I’ve read about people receiving messages from angels, from deceased loved-ones, and from spirit guides.  I read books on NDE’s (Near death experiences), but by far my favorites were the books regarding Past Life Regression Therapy.

This new time travel series focuses upon three sister witches.  The Griffin triplets are descendants of the great Queen, Cleopatra of Egypt.  This new story involves the spiritual aspects of our lives, while delving into the soul’s purpose, and exploring the Divine energy of love that surrounds us.  Historical tidbits regarding Egypt, Isis, and healing stones appear throughout the story.  The Griffin sisters have incarnated to balance the energies of positive and negative, regardless of year or dimension.  And in their free time, they own and operate the Griffin Reiki and Wellness center.  Their faith in God, their understanding of the afterlife, and their love for each other is how the sisters advance to awaken the spiritual awareness’s of mankind.

The dozens of books I’ve read have advanced my spiritual wellbeing, which has been a rewarding experience.

Here are a few books that I thought inspiring.

Brian Weiss, Many Lives, Many Masters.  (I’ve read nearly all of Weiss’s books, but if I had to pick only one, I’d choose this one.)  This book is known to be life changing.

Michael Newton, Destiny of Souls.

Delores Cannon, Between Death and Life.

Squire Rushnell, Divine Alignment.

Catherine Lanigan, Angel Watch.

 

 


The Curse Tablet
Published on February 24, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 1799

While doing my research on magic and witches throughout history, I came upon what was known throughout the Greco-Roman world as a curse tablet.  People who wish to ask the gods to do harm to another wrote a curse tablet text.  These curses were usually scratched on very thin sheets of lead, then rolled, and pierced together with nails.  The bound tablets were then buried, either in graves, thrown in wells or rivers, or nailed on the wall of temples.  Sometimes the tablets included a piece of hair or clothing, or the name of the person the curse was meant to harm.

The messages were often addressed to the lessor gods like Pluto, Charon, and Persephone.  Not all evoked the gods, and some of the tablets provided a list of crimes against the target.  The targets tended to be rivals in love and war.  Some tablets only carry the name of the person targeted, leading researches to believe that the curse may have been said aloud.  Many of he tablets are said to contain imprecise wording, like: “if he is guilty” or even conditional phrases such as, “if he breaks his word.”  The concern is with justice being received by the target.

Curse tablets were used to deter thieves in Roman Bath houses.  Over a hundred Latin written tablets were excavated in Bath, England.  Bathers didn’t care to emerge from their bath to find their clothes stolen, so the tablets were used to deter thieves by using their faith and fear in the gods.  The curse tablet was believed to bring the criminal to justice and retrieve the lost item.  They were oft times considered more binding if the curse was written backwards.

Curse tablets were also used for court cases, like writing down a curse that would prevent another from speaking.

In 2006, a curse tablet was found in Leicester, England, outside of an Ancient Roman townhouse, dating from the second century A.D.  The tablet reads:  “To the god Maglus, I give the wrongdoer who stole the cloak of Servandus.  Silvester, Roimandus … that he destroy him before the ninth day, the person who stole the cloak of Servandus …" A list of 18 or 19 suspects were named on the tablet.

Magic was used by the Greco-Roman society, regardless of economic or social status.  There are about 1600 curse tablets discovered, 220 of them were located in Attica, Greece, with the many of those written in Greek.  The first sets of tablets were found in Selinus, Sicily and are believed to be from the 6th century B.C.  Of the 1600 tablets found, 110 are written in Greek.  Ancient literature shows that these curse tablets were well known and feared.

Not all of these tablets contained curses; some of them contained love spells.  The curse tablet faded into obscurity around the 7th or 8th centuries A.D., although cursing continues to flourish today.

 

A special thank you to National Geographic News and paganwiccan.com


Regency England and Medical Care
Published on February 13, 2014 by lahilden | Views: 2409

Visiting a doctor in the 21st century isn’t fun, but visiting a doctor in Regency England was often life threatening, and your treatment depended on how much you could afford to pay.  This is why home remedies were tried before the doctor was summoned.  There were three medical practitioners functioning during the time of Regency England.  Physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries, but I think midwives should also have a place and have included them below.

Doctors

We shall begin with the physicians, who are considered to have better training and experience.  The physician often came from a genteel background.  They were the second or third sons of a gentleman.  The doctors attended prestigious schools and earned their degree at a university.  These universities were associated with various hospitals.  Their training did not include an apprenticeship, nor did they practice on actual patients.  A doctor’s education consisted of listening to medical procedures taught in a lecture hall.

Doctors were considered expensive and hired by the members of the aristocracy.  They also liked to be paid in a discreet manner, since theoretically, gentlemen did not accept money for work.  Only physicians that were licensed by the Royal College of Physicians were addressed by the title of doctor.  If a doctor was staying with a family, he was likely to be invited to dine with them.

Surgeons

Surgeons were not regarded as highly as doctors, nor were they like the surgeons of today.  Surgeons in Regency England were more like general practitioners, and usually had an apprenticeship under a doctor.  In 1815, the laws of apprenticeship changed to require a five-year apprenticeship and a six-month training course to receive a license as a surgeon, prior to this they were not very educated.  Most surgeons of the period learned from on the job training.  Medical knowledge at the time was obtained through trial and error, where experiments were conducted and observations were made and noted in journals.  These medical journals were a source of knowledge for those in the medical field, unfortunately these journals were expensive, so poorer doctors often shared the subscription and passed the journals amongst each other.

Surgery was performed without anesthesia, and was usually limited to amputation or noninvasive surgeries, like cyst removal.  Ether wasn’t discovered until 1842.  Before this time, people who needed surgery were given large does of alcohol, opium, cannabis, or mandrake, which were not very effective.  Less effective measures of pain relief were ice, hypnosis, bloodletting, and nerve compression.  If the pain didn’t kill you, then an infection might, since the chances of dying from infection were very high.  Because the surgeons performed amputations, and lacked the university education, they were seen below doctors in social circles, and thus if staying with a family he would likely dine with the upper servants.

Apothecary

Apothecaries were considered the poor man’s doctor.  They were apprenticed to learn about drugs.  In essence, they were Regency pharmacists and deemed as tradesmen.  But in villages or rural areas, where doctors were scarce, it was the apothecary who would come to your home to treat you.  The problem was that many of these elixirs given for treatment were toxic.  See my early blog on Drugs and Addiction.  Apothecaries were seen even further down on the social scale and fall beneath the surgeons.  An apothecary’s chance of staying to eat with the family was slim, but he would dine with the servants, if invited at all.

Midwives and Women

Women during the era acted as midwives, nurses, and herbal healers.  But during the Regency, more men began to enter into midwifery.  Midwives delivered the majority of babies.  Forceps had been invented by this time for difficult births, but female midwives often wouldn’t use them, while the males would.  Cases of childbed fever increased, due to forceps use.  C-sections were rarely used because of the high rate of infection.  An obstructed baby would be killed and removed in pieces.  If the mother died, they would try to save the baby, but the procedure had to be done quickly or the baby wouldn’t receive oxygen.  Husbands were often consulted before these life or death tactics were taken.

A few doctors were knighted for doctoring the royal family, and although the aristocracy hired doctors, they did not invite them to their parties.  Most of the doctors treated patients in towns and villages, and they rarely visited the hospitals.  People were often treated inside of their home.  The hospitals were mostly located in the cities, and not used by the majority of the population.  Hospitals were considered places of contagion.

Items used by a Regency doctor often included the black leather medical bag, lancets, scalpels, syringes, and bleeding cups.  The Frenchman, René Laennec, invented the stethoscope during the Regency era in 1816.  Hand washing and changing bandages were not concerns, so illnesses often spread or caused infections.  You can see more on medical treatments by referring to my blog on Leeches and Bloodletting.
Stethoscope

Although medicine was hit or miss, new medicines were discovered, such as quinine, calamine, proven herbal remedies, and others.  Edward Jenner improved upon the small pox vaccination during the Regency, making it the first infectious disease to be restrained in this manner.

 

A special thanks to thebeaumonde.com and Roy and Lesley Adkins, Jane Austen’s England and romancingthepast.com